Biodiversity is the term given to the variety of life on earth. The life includes all species of plants, animals and microorganisms and the ecosystems in which they live and interact. Biodiversity can be explored based on three levels: Genetic Diversity; Species diversity; and Diversity of Ecosystems
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Genetic diversity refers to the variety of genes within a species. Each species is composed of individuals who have their own genetic composition. In a species, it may also includes discrete populations with a typical gene. Genes contain the information necessary for all life on earth. They are passed from parents, and contains information that builds and maintains cell and determine the characteristics of the physical and biochemical significance of each organism. To preserve the genetic diversity within a species, different populations must be preserved. This is to protect the genetic diversity that allows for adaptation to changes in the environment and essential for the survival of the species.
Species diversity refers to the variety of species in an area. Factors that determine species diversity is complex and not easily understood. The diversity of species is not evenly distributed around the world or on the continent. A total of 34 (thirty-four) biodiversity hotspots have been identified gobally. The new hotspot collectively only 2.3% of the land surface of the earth.
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FOTO: RON AGUSTA
Ecosystem is the interaction or the interrelationships between the living and the surrounding environment. In general, the ecosystem can be divided into two categories, namely the natural and artificial. Natural ecosystem: the ecosystem that is formed naturally without any human intervention, such as: the river ecosystem, desert ecosystem, coral reefs, savannah ecosystems, marine and other ecosystems. Artificial ecosystem: the ecosystem is formed due to human intervention and are designed to meet human needs. Various artificial ecosystems include: ecosystem paddy, oil palm plantations, settlements ecosystems, ecosystem dams, artificial forest ecosystems, agro-ecosystem and other.